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Descriptive English Syntax


Autor BANTAS, Andrei
Colectie Didactica
Domeniu Anglistica
Aparut 09/1996
Nr. pagini 265
Format 1/16 (70x100)
ISBN/ISSN 973-9148-92-1
Titlu epuizat

1. Clauses and Phrases We are all of us familiar with the notion of SENTENCE, as it has evolved in European cultural tradition. As it is being taught in our schools, it dates from the 19th century (Delbrck). It envisages a combination of an indefinite number of CLAUSES, at least one of them a MAIN CLAUSE (Hauptsatz), the others SUBSIDIARY CLAUSES (Nebenstze). Each subsidiary clause DEPENDS on exactly one main clause, e.g. the if clause (subsidiary) on the then clause (main) in if you wish to, then I'll tell you. The whole combination is known as a COMPLEX SENTENCE (Satzgefge). Some sentences contain just one main clause and no subsidiary clauses. They are known as SIMPLE SENTENCES, e.g. I'll tell you tonight. Any clause should contain a finite verb. Otherwise it is not a clause, but a PHRASE, e.g. the participial phrases talking to reporters here (1.13), centered in Boston Harbor (1.3). In this sense, the finite verb is said be COMPULSORY (obligatorisch), everything else OPTIONAL (fakultativ). If the compulsory finite verb is an inflected form of be, the clause is said to be COPULATIVE or EQUATIONAL (K.L. Pike). Otherwise, it is said to be VERBAL. The analysis of the sentence is known as SYNTAX in classical grammar. Syntax is typically defined as die Lehre vom Satz. 2. Parsing Clauses are divided into CONSTITUENTS such as subject, predicate, object, adverbial phrase, e.g. George Bush (sbj.) staged (pred.) his own Boston tea party (obj.) yesterday (adv.) (1.1.). This division is known as PARSING. In the simple sentence, the predicate contains at least a finite verb, the subject and object at least one substantive or pronoun each. Substantive, verb etc. are known as PARTS of SPEECH (Wortklassen). Classical grammar recognizes the ten parts of speech substantive (N), adjective (adj.), adverb (adv.), article, pronoun, numeral (nu), verb (V), preposition, conjunction, interjection. We will use the bracketed abbreviations in our formulae below. Each finite verb is said to GOVERN specific COMPLEMENTs (direct/indirect objects, adverbial phrases, prepositional phrases). For instance, ride governs the direct object boat and the adverbial prepositional phrase across Boston Harbor in the main clause. V. P. Bush rode a sightseeing boat across Boston Harbor (1.2.). Conversely, the complements or actants are said to DEPEND on the finite verb. One modern school of grammar which focuses on those relationships is known as DEPENDENCY GRAMMAR (Tesnire, Heger). There is a hierarchy of dependencies within the clause. Not only does the complement depend on the verb, but within a complement such as a quick raid (1.1), a and quick depend on raid. in a very quick raid, the adverb very depends, in turn, on quick. In this hierarchy, raid is, accordingly, primary or principal, quick secondary or adjunct, very tertiary or subjunct (Jespersen II. 24).


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